Cosmology, Universe, Space, Ether, Time

Électronisme - Essay

Chapter 1

The Universe

1,1 - Reality of the Universe,
1,2 - Ether of the space,
1,3 - The time,
1,4 - Space Time,
1,5 - Age of the Universe,
1,6 - The Gravity,
1,7 - Active system,
1,8 - Random system and hysteresis,
1,9 - Disorder and entropy,
1,10 - Creating of space objects,
1,10,a - Space Observations, & 1,10,b - The Galaxies,
1,11 - The Electron Cycle

1,1 - Reality of the Universe

For us living beings, the Universe is as strong a reality as that of our very existence.

We do not know the reason for its existence, nor of ours.

What we know of it gives us no reason to think there could be one or more other universes that we do not know.

The reflections, on this, are philosophical, often guided by irrational beliefs and strong as to be unquestionable.

The study of the Universe is made by human beings, for themselves.

There is nothing, no one anywhere in the Universe that could do it for us and that we could understand.

Some physicists question its reality by asking themselves why something exists while a void could be in its place. Philosophers of science also raise questions about the value of what we do not understand and what we do not know that we do not know.

In the early 20th century, the study of the Universe was troubled by cosmology, speculation that deals with the knowledge of the Universe and is scientific if one takes account only of facts and actions actually known and proven.

Before this century, cosmology was not considered a science until Einstein gives a shape to the Universe based on his theory of relativity, whose mathematically study is difficult to understand and accept. Einstein was a physicist, not a mathematician.

Many physicists continue to explain it as if no one had really understood. This is probably true.

His theories of relativity were based on poorly known elements in his time:

  • The relativity of Galileo transposed, in parts of non-breaking parts of space, very physical observations of terrestrial events.
  • The Newton gravitational attraction to which he himself did not believe. See chapter III.
  • Its average value on our planet, so it is very variable in different places and very different in all other objects in space.
  • For a century its value has changed more than 300 times.
  • The speed of light considered as invariable and insurmountable without reason since nobody knew what it was.
  • Maxwell's equations for non-existent phenomena, never explained.
  • The way we interpret facts and observations depends on the knowledge we have of them.

There was the discovery of the atom and that of its components; that of "geo" and heliocentrism; the gravitational attraction of masses marked the time of Aristotle and elaborated by Newton who did not believe; then Einstein's relativity, the Big Bang and quantum mechanics, that no one could ever understand, explained its creators and Richard Feynman.

Nowadays, in the beginning of the 21th century, with improvements in the observational technics, the astronomers discover other objects and phenomena which push them to be interested in the theories of the last century. But it seem that astrophysicists, and mainly cosmologians keep hanged to ideas never actually proved, as fundamental Universe constants, its expansion and existing matter and energy said black, unknown or exotic.

In astronomy, many scientists consider that 85 percent of the universe would consist of unknown material whose characteristics are difficult to know and understand, despite all the current research.

For some scientists, an invisible energy fills all space. Its manifestations are many. Others find in free space, a force called vacuum energy, related to an alleged expansion of the Universe.

This expansion and a vacuum energy are hard to admit, and experts recognize that they do not yet understand much.

With equipment constantly improving, astrophysicists observe and explain that new stars are created with the remains of space objects, destroyed at end of their life and observed particularly in nebulae. The clouds of these residues are invisible to us, what we explain in this chapter and the 4th.

1,2 - The space Ether

Human beings have always thought of an Ether of space which would support the stars, gravitational waves and photons. But scientists of recent centuries imagined it with difficulty and did not find a substance that would be free of all its components and elements that it would support. The idea has been accepted more or less time by many scholars including Descartes, Newton, Einstein and Poincaré.

Space is everywhere, in what we call space, of course, until our home gate and in all material objects and in open spaces around and in all matters.

In this space, the systems of the objects are gathered into various structures, galaxies, clusters, and more, without observable or sensitive boundary between these structures and the immense areas that seem empty.

Since the 17th century, many researches were directed to a ‘substance Ether‘ linked to the objects it would carry. The matter should have been constituted of atoms, like all other matters on our planet, and probably elsewhere. Thus conceived by Pascal and later Michelson and Morley.

The researches never allow to find it.

Newton, before giving his idea on gravitational attraction, thought that the Ether could be a ‘kind of very subtle mind that penetrates all solid bodies’We could say this about our Ether.

Currently, despite all our knowledge, it seems that physicists fail to establish a theory synthesising the ideas of the Ether and vacuum of space.

Einstein considered the Ether in 1905 in his studies of gravitation and relativity, then abandoned the idea. But he revisited it, and sketched its history in his lecture in Leiden in 1 920. The lecture ended with this paragraph: "A space without Ether is unconceivable… This Ether should not however be conceived as being endowed with the property that characterises ponderable media."

In Annex 5 of his book on relativity, he quotes Descartes and Kant and vindicates the first against the second, denying the existence of vacuum, that is to say, he specifies, the existence of a “filled” empty space. He notes in the preface to the ninth edition of his book: "Physical objects are not in space, but they have a spatial extent. Thus, the concept of ‘empty space ’loses its meaning ".

With our theory, we propose that space exists by the presence of elements that fills it entirely and creates it.

This is also the creation of the Universe itself.

Thus the space consists of one volume, which is the space itself and the Universe.

Its elements, the electrons of the Ether, are the "universal" medium.

They vibrate constantly with a variable volume in two dimensions, which we explain in the next chapter.

The elements of the space seem to bear all the free space bodies and made objects, which, as an object, keep their volume in the space.

They are not held together, they just vibrate side by side and the movement of expansion of their vibrations makes them move away from each other; they can also meet, and incite each other for their move.

They do not leave a gap between them, because nothingness cannot exist in the Universe, it would lead it to its non-existence.

In this environment, all bodies, free from all connections with others, of any quality or size, move without limit, except the meeting of other elements.

They are other free electrons of Ether and other bodies resulting of previous meetings and their connections that create inevitably most important compounds which, by chance, at every possible contact and connection, in a time of billions of billions years, create the objects that we know.

Thus these objects of space, stars and planets in their galaxies and clusters are the results of the disorder of electrons of the space Ether.

There is no purpose in these creations.

Objects are always special, different from others, because somewhere by chance, one or many contacts between electrons were somewhat dissimilar…

1,3 - Time

There was much discussion of Augustine phrases evoking time… "What then is time? If no one asks me, I know; but if you ask me, and I undertake to explain, I find that I do not know. I can boldly say that I still know that if nothing happened, there would be no past time; nothing should happen if there have no time to come, and that if nothing had happened, there would be no time now… "

And also: "The time is not a knowledge but a thought."

The time does not exist as a material concept with a tangible presence or substance that would have an observable action.

We perceive that when it held a new event, different from another, previous or not, depending on how we observe it. The two events exist in different times, in what we call a space of time, indefinite period, like all other events in the world, near or far.

They were carried out at different times, without need for an element that separates and collects in a determined time. Multiple events can be realized in a certain space of time, but no material factor of time is needed to bind them.

If no new event occurs, there is no time that would be determined by the observer. In men everyday life on Earth, in the Universe, new events occur continuously and as they always have an impact on each other, an apparent time still exists.

It is the observer who creates time.

This was not the case at the very beginning of the Universe. Thus, we can not estimate time for periods without event and without time that could have set the date for the beginning.

Eternity exists in these conditions. We never know how long.

According to Électronisme, the only element acting is the electron. It consists of an unknown mass of material whose volume increases instantaneously and then reduced in the same way, increased again, and so on without interruption.

The action is instantaneous, without "time" for implementation.

With our human appreciations of time, we can consider that the operations that follow, instant expansion of an electron, instant return to the minimum volume will not be realized at the same time and there may be a very short time of change of action.

There is no "time" determined between the two objects, expanded and then reduced electron, which we see as new as it is the same Mass.

We could observe four operations and various instant situations: the expanded volume of the mass, its stop, the original volume, its stop. These cumulative instantaneous operations take "some time" according to our human observations or reasonings.

With the sophisticated equipment now used by researchers, we can observe and record intermediate stages, in which two objects are confused into one "time."

We get a virtual and stealth image of an object that does not exist and that physicists consider trace or footprint of new objects such as discovered and used by quantum mechanics and listed in the Standard Model.

They are observed only during a very short "time" and are very varied quality, never a precise mode of action or participation in actual physical events.

This would happen as a boson, the said Higgs, for example, which is described as traces of an unknown thing we do not know the form since it disappears as soon as being created and we have never seen. This would be an intermediate object shown by very or too specific precise equipment that observe objects very difficult to distinguish from each other.

The trace is found only in very small quantities in yottas of accumulated information.

If it really was the vector of a "Higgs field" that would give to the Universe mass elements, it should exist in very large quantity.

This could also be the case of neutrinos which change their "flavour", no one has ever found the reason for their existence and variations. Again, if it exists, it is surprising to find so little.

According to our current knowledge, the living beings on Earth are alone in the Universe to use the time for their material and social life.

Men gave human measures to time and our most accurate clocks are based on vibrations, "almost" stable, of well defined crystals. Current research is directed to the use of vibration of atoms in place of those of the crystals composed of atoms. We approach to the electrons vibrations.

In objects, all compounds body vibrate a bit differently than electrons and maintain an agitation which can be very high, especially in the stars. This agitation corresponds to movements at varying speeds to free compounds or particles; it does not affect the movement of electrons vibrations; so there is no significant difference in time compared to that of the void of space objects.

Thus to establish our distance to the stars, astronomers have never doubted the immutability of "natural" speed of light.

We will see in chapter IV it is based on the speed of movement of electrons vibrations. It is an accumulation of time observed to create "instant" of successive objects.

1,4 - Space-time

In the Universe and its objects, for example on Earth, the assessment of four dimensions, three of space and one of time, is logical to allow us, living beings, to completely locate objects and events.

All are located in a point specified by its distance to the material bases determined at a specific time in their lives and ours.

Space-time has always existed in the lives of human beings. It is an unconscious and necessary social phenomenon that has no particular scientific value.

The dimensions, considered as tools for locating objects and events, exist only by sentient beings and for them. We have on Earth the matter that allows us to create these benchmarks.

Without them, the dimensions and distances can not exist.

In the Universe, we have no reference or location of objects and their distances, except using our human bases.

Particularities of these dimensions, or extra dimensions that may be difficult to understand, are therefore meaningless for us in the Universe.

Symmetry, or another particular orientation of movements of particles and various bodies, cannot be assessed except with our references.

The curvature of space-time is a creation of Einstein, to try to incorporate the gravitational attraction of masses. This deformation is incomprehensible in a volume without structure and isotropic. The graphs are misleading, showing deformed volumes, by an attraction "down" without the consequences of ‘contre-deformations

Similarly, the geodesic mean nothing in the vacuum of space.

No astronomer has ever considered this curvature of space in his observations of the heavens and the calculations of distance to galaxies and other objects.

1,5 - Age of the Universe

We cannot imagine a beginning to the Universe.

For it to begin at a definite time that we would know, it would have been created by something in a void that at the same time would not be nothing; and, for the supporters of space expansion, may still exist, but not necessarily.

According to our theory, the Universe has been existing since a non-start, which happened an extremely long time ago, an almost infinite number of billions human years.

In chapter III, we explain the creating of electrons compounds, the first stage being a quite rare singularity, the binding of Ether electrons, with others, free or already participant of particles and various bodies. As soon as they are linked together, the electrons cannot still being free, taking part in the space Ether, but their volumes, even slightly modified, it still in it.

We may think that all the elements that make up the compounds were originally participants of the space Ether.

At the real no-start of the Universe, billions of billions years ago, a first singularity occurred: electrons tied together and that was the beginning of the creating of the matters, objects and the Universe as it is known.

These singularities have not been more frequent in the following time, and at present, but they continue to be done, until they constitute all the objects existing in space. They are still badly known and the astronomers and astrophysicians do not estimate the quantities of objects numbers, or by mass or volume, in link with the volume of the Universe which is unknown to us.

But they try to estimate the volume occupied by the objects regarding this to the whole space, considering it as homogeneous and isotropic.

The recent observation (end of 2013) of a "large quasar group" which could be the largest structure ever seen in the entire Universe, shows that space is not so it was considered.

The volume of objects, particles and constituted matters, increases regularly from the first links of the Ether electron. We can notice two cosmological information.

- The awareness, in the limited volume of observable Universe, of the average rhythm of the links of the Ether electrons, and valuation of the number of electrons in all the already created objects, could give the age of the Universe, in billions of billions years, with more or less some tens of billions. An almost eternity.

- A valuation of the volume of space void of objects, could allow us to calculate the time for «filling» it, that means the number in billions of billions years needed until all the free electrons of the space Ether are changed into matters and objects. An other almost eternity, but in this side, it could take a bit more time at the end!

- And after? We have plenty of time to think about that! May be a Big Bang…

1,6 - Gravity

As explained above and later in the essay, the space objects are in perpetual creation and modification. Their shape and their number is constantly increasing. They live a few billion years, then are replaced by others that are built with previous remains. We will see that intricative bonds are indestructible, which might suggest that as measuring the progress of time, objects, stars, galaxies and other clusters gradually become larger.

The objects in space could be created just like those we know on Earth and in the solar system and beyond with astronomical observations.

The gravitational attraction of the masses does not exist. It was never explained. We do not see any justification. Nothing explains that mass attract another.

To understand its presence in the space of the current cosmology, we must go back to Aristotle and the Persian astronomer Al-Khwarizmi. Philosophers - Physicists "knew" that a force of attraction existed between the celestial bodies, for "standing them where they were. " The studies were difficult, evolving with general understanding of astronomical systems.

The idea was acquired, indisputable. Such as the movement of the planets, the existence of light and heat from the sun. The stars 'held' themselves in the space because a link existed between them. The observed shifts of planets took into account and it was no need to explain the basis of the system.

Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo continue the study, from a general system to another without ever questioning this ill-defined attraction that tied all these objects by their Mass. Then Descartes and Newton in the 17th century, show the same ideas, Newton attaching gravity.

Newton explains the gravitational pull in his work but he does not admit this attraction, from one body to another, even very far from each other, va-tout related material. It would be the first scientist to refuse, but he found nothing to replace the idea accepted by all.

He writes it but nobody will consider it.

Einstein at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, took up the idea with the theories of relativity. His mathematical studies are difficult, probably because he is not certain of the reality of gravitational waves. He will discuss the rest of his life.

The idea was lacking in Newton and Einstein could be that of the internal gravity of objects created by the normal operation of electrons as explained by Électronisme. See chapter III.

We will see that in all compounds, materials and objects that form, it is established a gravity by the normal functioning of electrons vibrations.

The gravity in all compounds and objects is always accompanied by gravitic clouds, or particles winds, more or less bounded, participating to the creating of extremely various structures.

In space, all objects and their gatherings, form the same type of gravity, with very different various phenomena, according to thermic agitation, sizes and qualities of the matters while evoluting to create new objects.

Thus, it is difficult to provide all the events in space. The disappearances and gatherings of stellar and galactic systems are not very known, but they all follow the electrons functioning rules, applying, on our planet and everywhere, until the smallest elements that are the constituents of the Ether.

There are still the same rules which make that the rays of compounds, creating thermic agitation, never, or quite very rarely, leave from the gravitic clouds, creating limits relatively marked, around all objects.

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to imagine without using the infinite, "the immense magnitude" of the Universe, and therefore also its shape and limits, if they exist.

It has no form, if it is not limited in a material sense. Therefore it has no outside that would be another Universe or nothingness. Or else we must admit another theory, that of the existence of a significant number or infinite number of Universes.

It cannot be flat or convex or even as a Moebius ring, which may require, according to the belief, an exterior and a limit…

Cosmologists speak of its flatness without indicating what is the thickness of the flat sheet in the thickness of which our entire observable Universe would be found…

1,7 - Active system, without conscience

It is an active system, in the sense that its constituent particles constantly vibrate and create objects without reason, in perpetual change and renewal in other forms. They are random and we can not predict or track their permanent changes. We understand them with the help of chance, we are studying further.

The elements always act in the same way wherever they are, regardless of environmental conditions. No conscience, provision or particular directive is possible or necessary, despite the immensity of the number of all relevant factors concerned, all of which being electron compounds.

Such a system can only work because the actors are all similar, and follow simple functioning rules.

The occurrence of the events and their quality depends solely on two factors:

  • The environment in which they take place, the result of all the above facts, or initial conditions that may be specified for a particular phenomenon.
  • The precise state of the elements in contact. Similar elements in identical environments always give the same results.
  • Thus compounds are created and similar materials, for example crystals, in well determined systems. The phenomena are realized sooner or later depending on the available items, according to their qualities and quantities.
  • From chance. See next section.

Mathematics have no character that could indicate an origin in the Universe. This is the subject of philosophical development without any connection with the physical phenomena.

The essentially random creation of all the materials and objects in the Universe does not allow the use of mathematical tools to predict their development.

Mathematics do not give reality to concepts and useful virtual elements to the reasoning as the directions of charges, antimatter or cosmological constants.

Everything can be observed in the Universe, but the aesthetics and beauty are very specific sensations to living beings on Earth. Appreciation varies with them.

They can never be used to set universal rules or developments.

1,8 - Random system and hysteresis

Chance is involved in the entire operation of the Universe system.

After Poincaré and other physicists in the early 20th century, Edward Lorenz studied chaos and established some laws, - if possible - with overly complicated mathematical developments.

The chaos reflects initial conditions.

They do not exist in the random system of the Universe.

The big difference between chaos and chance of the Universe is that Universe's system does not accept "the hidden order in apparent disorder" (Wikipedia), or attractors with mandatory rules or fractals that are never complete.

Universe has no initial basis, except that its existence is due to the vibrating electrons whose actions are simple and immutable, creating random objects that are still the basis of the following.

In their studies, physicists, aided by mathematics, have always tried to reflect the chaotic chance, with the initial bases of their time. But each had his own. The information used also varied and it seems that no one has given what they were so much chaotic.

All creations of compounds, their modifications and transformations in materials and objects are the result of phenomena created by all similar electrons, according to immutable rules of operation "in all place and any time" throughout the Universe.

Under these conditions, all events should be predictable.

This is not possible because the actions are carried out at "full" chance of elements contact, free electrons or electron compounds, and their relative positions. Created or modified compounds are different from each other and unpredictable. Variations from one element to another in a specific area may be relatively small, which may allow the creation of almost homogeneous matter.

The chaos is a particular system that would limit the action of chance by bringing observations to a prior event that would be the beginning of the studied system. This does not change much for the Universe because the number of elements is so important that the return to a starting position is virtually impossible.

We might think that the system of the Universe is a particular random since all operations are performed by electrons with very precise rules that would be "the" preconditions. But the actions are carried out "at random" encounters between elements whose qualities are not specified because they are the result of random previous operations.

This particular chance of the Universe does not allow more forecasts than chaos or complete chance.

Studies have been made, with the Laplace determinism and chaos theory, the Poincaré studies, reflections such as the butterfly wing of Edward Lorentz in the 20th century. Excessively complicated mathematical models have been used to try to understand what we do not see and predict... the chance.

In meteorology, the results depend on the importance of the mass of information gathered and used very quickly with complicated mathematical models.

Mathematical and computer simulations are very difficult if not impossible for both the study of already made phenomena than for event forecasts in space for the creating of stars and other events.

Biologists and physiologists are currently discovering that randomness is very important in the creation and life of cells of living beings, and their very different molecules, elements of microscopic, nanometric and even smaller dimensions. That is to say that we are still obliged to take into account some factors that we do not know, and give random results that we are trying to predict.

It is then natural to think that the phenomenon exists at all levels for all elements of smaller dimensions up to that of the electron, or in the other direction, towards larger space objects.

Because of randomly conditions for the formation of compounds, the created objects are all different from each other. Astronomers have never observed two planets, stars or galaxies that are identical in space. On Earth, the mountains or sets of the "same" rock or ore, are of varied qualities and varied forms according to their different places of origin. Marble cutters use granite in different colours according to their original quarry and coal, iron or copper, for example, are never identical from one region to another on our planet.

The frequency of the process and quality of results are always random for us.

No «decision» of action is instantaneous. During its movement, an electron, free or already participating in a compound, can meet another, similar, but in a different phase of its vibrations, and if conditions allow them to form a link, this action is carried out immediately.

They can also not act because the quality of contact prevents them. Several or very numerous successive contacts may not lead to entanglement and an event. When it occurs, it may have happened over a certain time that varies depending on the compounds, objects and environment.

This time lag between the first meeting that could have enabled the action to take place and the moment when it occurs is the hysteresis.

It is variable according to the quality and importance of the involved elements. It is perceptible by us directly, on our planet, in numerous phenomena such as electricity, and the creation time for some compounds and objects. Special cases for us are the creation and development of living beings.

As time, the hysteresis is a phenomenon observed by men. It has no character linked to the Universe, space or objects.

It is a consequence of the fundamental rules of electrons operation.

Its duration is essentially variable and exists at all operating levels of the electrons even at the subatomic level that we can not directly observe.

Without hysteresis, the Universe could not have existed. From its appearance, it would have immediately fully created and destroyed, in strict application of the rules of operation of the electron, despite the notion of vastness, inseparable from the Universe.

1,9 - Disorder and entropy

From the non-beginning of the Universe, electrons bound together, formed a wide variety of compounds and thus creating what seems to us disorder.

Since then, the normal vibrations affect the movement of free elements and all bodies in this mess, and there create new objects.

Disorder describes the disturbances that change the state of a system. In any noninert one, random changes are always disturbances, which cannot be eliminated at random, except if they are transferred to another system, separate but contiguous.

In an isolated or unique existing system, such as the Universe, disturbances cannot be deleted. They only move and change constantly, randomly, by vibration.

Entropy refers to the overall distribution of disturbances within a medium. If the system is isolated, vibration can only break, regroup and scatter evenly small faults whose number will increase. This is an increase of entropy.

This new entropy does not happen immediately in a medium with the immensity of the Universe, especially considering that the modifications of the defects never stop and remain connected to their areas, with a continuous distribution in larger environments.

In space, there are more or less great regions with more or less large entropies, such as those which seem empty of objects, and others which include varying amounts of stars, galaxies and other items. They vary continuously.

As disorder is related to the importance of compounds and materials, it seems natural to think that it is more important in clusters of galaxies and clusters of other space objects in areas considered empty.

1,10 - Creating space objects

1,10,a - Observations of space

In the early 21st century, new observations with ever improved processes, enable to see more and differently structures and objects in space, casting doubt on previous theories.

In 2015, even the big bang and the expansion of the Universe are questioned by some physicists, which could result in a very different way of seeing the universe and all physics.

In the year 2014, astronomers have discovered that our Milky Way galaxy is part of a much larger structure called Laniakea. They simultaneously observe that problems of gravitational attraction, or gravity, within such a system could change the perception of the space expansion.

Which is confirmed by other recent observations. A team of researchers, led by astronomers from the Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory found that small galaxies satellites, around the "big", move like in rotating disks. We interpret as areas of stellar winds that influence each other in galaxies.

Already in 2013, it was reported that the Andromeda galaxy was surrounded by a disk formed by a multitude of small dwarf galaxies. This structure, extremely flat, extends over a million light years and seems to revolve around the galaxy.

At the release of this information, the only technical comments indicated that "The Newton gravitational attraction and Einstein's theory of relativity may not be accurate.

1,10,b - The galaxies

The objects gravitic cloud could also explain that the orbits of planets around the Sun are all in the same plane, which was discovered in 2008.

Wind particles, around stars and planets, match their gravitic clouds. We may think that the first orbital plane of a planet around a star causes the other planets in the same orbital plane.

The shape of galaxies may depend on the same phenomena.

The volume of stars winds changes constantly as contacts more or less marked with those of near and remote stars in their galaxies.

It is very understandable that the stellar winds develop and move further in the area of the diameter of faster rotation of the stars, and the accumulation of all these plat atmospheres creates similar galaxies with growths of atmospheres formed by additional stars therein create or agglomerate it in different orientations.

Other recent astronomical observations, in intergalactic space, give images of more or less structured light clouds, forming the WHIM - acronym of English words meaning Intergalactic Medium to high temperature -. They would consist of small elements and particles very scattered created from electrons of Ether in areas outside galaxy.

They could form objects classified as orphans and be the beginning of new galaxies.

While most current material of objects are formed from atoms created in stars and other objects that have preceded them in space. This would correspond to the permanent and logic creation, in our theory, of new objects anywhere in the Ether of space.

But these "first" objects have a relatively short life because they would not have atoms, since the nuclei are formed in stars with high thermic agitation.

1,11 - The Electron Cycle

By accident - called a singularity in physics - some electrons bound together, form compounds, some indestructible, creating stars and their planets, and other objects that are invisible to us. After billions of years, compounds reappear to us, scattered in vast nebulae and dark clouds in galaxies or free space objects.

It is an endless cycle of indestructible electrons.

We'll tell a possible version, despite all the unknowns of what we see and do not yet understand, and constantly evolving.

We start the description in a nebula.

There are very many in the galaxy, and probably outside. These are huge expanses of clouds, with shifting boundaries, more or less transparent and difficult to observe because they are visible only under very specific conditions.

These nebulae are usually composed of remains, very scattered, of stars and other objects in space, in the form of bodies that are visible when sufficient activity is developing, that is to say that small compounds bind together creating disturbances of space; as we explain in the following chapters.

All nebulae are different from each other and contain the "diluted" material, considered "dust and gas." These terms do not correspond to what we know on Earth where they are badly determined elements of various materials.

The dust in the nebulae would be made of large particles and other bodies, like protons and atomic nuclei, not yet combined into matters.

In some areas, the temperature begins to rise, following slightly more bonds of various compounds, triggered by radiation from other objects or electrons of the disturbances of space. Everything is still very scattered, but the objects are formed and move, increasing the links and movements.

A gravitational collapse is often given as responsible for the formation of stars in the nebulae. This is not right because not any attraction of a mass by an other can exist, as explained earlier in this chapter.

Radioactive material could be formed at this stage in the nebulae. They are at the basis of phenomena we study further, water (5.2, d) and the so-called nuclear energy (5.3), in chapter v.

Millions or billions of years after the "disappearance" of stars in clouds of un-constituted matters, nuclei of atoms from the previous objects begin the creation of varied materials.

In some areas, heavy and very heavy nuclei compound with many protons possess a relatively high gravity and can agglomerate with different atoms to form molecules surrounded by many compounds in large gravitic clouds.

Since all the nuclei of these atoms are not "fused", they create, they create various molecules and compounds which form clumps of easily fissionable material.

In the nebula, these «massive» are scattered throughout objects under creating. This was the case for our Sun, its planets and other objects.

All objects remain long dependent on the temperature of the nebula and space of the galaxy where they exist.

After the creation of the first objects, accretions of other bodies continue. Meetings of compounds of different sizes, moving in different directions, cause the rotation of some of them. The internal gravity increases by a continued series of bonds of various compounds.

All these actions are carried out depending on the size of the element and the outside temperature that can stop the phenomena or otherwise accelerate.

Current observations (2014 and 2015) of the comet Tchouri, on which Rosetta laid the minilab Philea, show a matter that would be similar to that of Earth, but much lighter, as if there were much room between constituent compounds. We may think that the material of the (only) planet we really know, ours, would be made of the same material as the comet but was modified since a long time by a sequence of movements and other internal events, which we forecast in our study of the composition of the matters in chapter III.

So, we have different categories of objects because the creating was stopped after varying times depending on the size of objects and the temperature of the environment:

  • Asteroids, comets with very different shape and a material whose evolution varies with the environment,
  • Planets, generally spherical,
  • Stars, whose volume is very much larger than previous objects; their evolution depends on the material of which they are formed.

In stars, materials and their compounds continue groupings with electrons binding while creating an inevitable increase in thermic agitation, as explained in chapter III.

Initially, according to the materials, thermic agitation destroys the bonds of electrons while forming new compounds, which create a new increase of thermic agitation.

Heat increases again and the whole of materials is converted into plasma, which becomes the non-matter of the whole object. In several billion years, new protons are created and many of them are merged into atomic nuclei, formed by tightly entangled electrons.

Light waves reach us from the bright stars in their main sequence. We only "see" the outer part that hides everything that happens inside where the temperature is much higher.

Thermic agitation increases continuously with the electron bonds frequency and therefore disturbances of space Ether electrons. At a certain level, our tools, vision and observation equipment, no longer allow us to see them. The stars are still there, but the frequencies of the disturbances are too high for our vision. We can not see them, they have become a black space, a black hole for us.

These black holes are objects in which the electron temperature and the links continue to grow normally. They can become very large and the density became very strong. The compounds can move no further. There are no more electron bonds and therefore no more increase of thermic agitation.

They can hide other objects and grow by absorbing free electrons in space and stellar winds from other objects in the galaxy.

That's then the real death of the star, became a black hole.

The temperature decreases and, at a certain level, the object reappears to us, huge and very bright. That is a quasar, or other similar object that will evolve to be invisible to us again, turning into dark matter, dark clouds, in compounds what are «un-constituted» and incorporated in invisible but existing nebula.

This can last a very long time, billions or tens of billions of years, during which materials continue to change or fall apart slowly by the action of electrons vibrations.

Some compounds, such as protons and number of clusters with nuclei are never defeated because they are held together by entanglement.

It's a long phase of in-constituted matter imperceptible for us.

Objects fall apart and scatter in dark clouds, while their material begins to re-form compounds. It is the evaporation observed by Stephen Hawking.

Then their «life» is slowly returning, probably induced by electrons disturbances in space, that may trigger new electron bonds. Clouds of black or dark matter then appear as different coloured nebulae according to their rapid evolution, when the intricacies of electrons are realized at frequencies that make us sensitive.

Before this period of life, the nebulae could be sensible to us by "radio" waves at lower frequencies than light. They could explain "the sounds of the depths of space," instead of the diffuse cosmological background.

And so new stars are reborn!

The life cycle of an electron is completed. Another begins…

© Philippe Dardel - 18/4/2016