From Atomes to  Galaxies

Chapter III

3,1 - Electrons’ contacts,
3,2 - Entanglements,
3,3 Gravity,
3,4 - Gravitic clouds,

3,5 - Magnism, 3,5,bis - Other Phenomena,
3,6 - The Matter,
3,6,a - Nanoscience, 3,6,b - Electron, 3,6,c - Atoms,
3,6,d - Molecules and Matters
3.6,e - Death of Stars, materials and Living Beings

April 2016

3,1 - Electrons contacts

In the previous chapter, we saw that the only two possible actions by electrons, throughout space and in the objects matters, are a modification of their move and their binding with one another.

In this chapter, we focus on the electron bonds to create compounds and the matters of all objects in space.

Contacts of free electrons or already participating in compounds, cause sometimes, randomly, connections that modify compounds or create new ones. Without consciousness in the Universe, these actions cannot be planned or controlled. They must be automatic.

They always take place, according to precise operative modes, that do not depend either on particular circumstances, or on previous phenomena, but only of their intrinsic qualities and their strict operating rules, leading always to the same precise actions, in any situation.

These actions are realised always on primordial level, since it is the electrons that act and create the bindings.

One must remember that the electron is a particle which measures 10-18 meter medium radius, that is to say, a millionth of a billionth of a millimetre and that all objects in the Universe are exclusively composed of electrons.

    1. The average atom, as presently described since early 2,015 by the current physics, measures 10-10 meters, that is to say, it is a hundred million times larger than an electron.

The properties of electrons, free or already combined with others, are never modified. A free compound or atomic nucleus, wether it is formed of two, two hundred or two hundred thousands electrons retains all the characteristics of electrons.

Electrons are never merged: their masses are not confused. Quanta of matter remain always individualised in all the complex structures they form.

Because of their vibrations, electrons do not easily connect to one another. To do this, they must be forced to stay together after their contact.

In these circumstances, the best mode of connection is their physical entanglement, which is the status of closely entangled things.

Its implementation requires specific physical characteristics for electrons: it is necessary that their external structure allows a sufficient contact under certain conditions of their vibrations.

If the movement of "contiguous" electrons occurs at the same time in their vibration cycle, entanglement occurs.

This phenomenon takes place only when exists a contact of a certain quality.

They could be of two kinds:

    1. - Hard meetings, rigid. The vibration movements of the two electrons are in different phases of volume, maximum and minimum. They can not bind and seem repel, in different ways, depending on motion speed and direction of their contacts

    2. - Soft meetings take place when the two electrons are in the same phase of their vibrations, with volume maximum or minimum; they vibrate side by side and an-entanglement is likely to occur.

  1. Our way of explaining human time, to the first chapter of this essay, allows us to think that there may be intetmediaires contacts that would create more contacts opportunities.

  2. The precise state of the movement of electrons in contacts is always random and conditions permitting .intrications are infrequent, at least in the material that we know on Earth.

  3. It is always the electrons that carry out the operations in the space free of objects and in the materials of objects.

These actions are classified as electric, electricity being the phenomenon that makes the connections while the electrons do not contain any force or "energy" that would be responsible to perform it.

In these materials, "useful" contact of electrons already combined with others, is not easily realized because their movements are slower.

They may become with a time of successive contacts without effect. Thus the creation of certain materials may require accelerated successive moves by other contacts, creating an increase of thermic agitation. This is the need to supply heat for some syntheses or use catalysis, processes which are explained later in this chapter.

    1. All creations of materials and objects are always very random, with very slow achievements that are sometimes sensitive to us by the hysteresis.

    2. They could explain the almost eternity of the universe.

3,2 - Entanglements

Because of their vibrations, the electrons keep permanently their shaped ball, with variable diameter, minimum and maximum.

The state of electrons determines their connections.

Each electron accepts a small number of bonds in that they are spherical, and the same average volume, despite the variations due to vibrations.

    1. Since Kepler and Gregory, in the 17th century, many physicists and vegetable growers were interested in the volume of oranges piles in displays…

    2. The number to remember for oranges and electrons that can reach is 12, around a thirteenth, with some margins due to wilting of citrus fruits or volume changes and the entanglement of electrons.

    3. Each electron may not be surrounded and firmly entangled, by more than 12 other, whatever the circumstances.

  1. The intricacies are irreversible.

When the action is possible, it is always realized. No device or conscious program exists in the Universe that could delay or prevent it.

A new action can take place immediately after, but it is absolutely not related to the previous.

No component, free or participant to another object in any matter whatsoever, can not return to action to restore the previous situation. The only new changes are other linkages which swell or bind the compound to another.

  1. 3,3 - The Gravity

At their intricacy, the electrons bound to apparently form only an object, can not "physically" develop fully during the expansion, and volume of compounds is smaller than the sum of volumes of components.

This reduction is carried out on the volume of the compound, without any modification in the characteristics of the electrons themselves. Its mass does not change and corresponds to the total component masses.

Relative to the volume, it is increased, forming a contraction of the mass itself, such as an indoor attraction.

It is gravity.

It is adapted to the compound in which it is formed.

This compound is still part of a package which also has its gravity.

All bodies and objects show a common gravity, resulting from that of all components.

Its "strength" is proportional to the amount of electrons; it is relatively larger with the links between "graves" or heavy compounds, having a bigger amount of electrons.

Gravitation was studied in the 17th century by Newton, who resumed the work of Galilee and Kepler. It also embodies the idea of the first observers of the space, a force that held together the stars in the firmament.

Despite all his research, observations and reflections, Newton found no explanation for this phenomenon. He then proposed a gravitational attraction that would link all bodies by their own mass. This approach was understandable because the studies he was undertaking were all performed on space objects within our galaxy. The scientists of the time did not distinguish between the space of the galaxy and of the Universe. All known objects were bound by the gravities of their galaxies.

But it was risky to generalise to the entire space of the Universe still barely known.

At the same time, he wrote that it could not exist: "I restored to physics that thing "prohibited" since Aristotle: "instantaneous remote» action. And he sent a letter to Richard Bentley in 1692: "Whether gravity is innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that a body could act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without mediation of other things, by which and through which their action and strength can be communicated from one to the other is to me an absurdity that I believe no man, having the ability to reason competently in philosophical matters, could ever be guilty of". At the same time, he implicitly confirmed the existence of the Ether of space, which at that time, was misunderstood but was not questioned.

Physicists at the end of the 17th century did not easily accept his ideas. It took almost thirty years in order that, in France and Germany, Newton's works were recognised, but not always accepted.

It is amazing that today physicists and commentators relate only very rarely these doubts of Newton, while evidence of the gravitational attraction of the masses has not been found.

    1. The findings, beginning of 2016, of Ligo and Virgo interferometers, are not evidence.

Two centuries later, Einstein takes up the idea, which leads him to invent what he calls the curvature of space by the mass and energy of objects. This has never been observed.

It is very difficult to imagine such a "curvature" in a limited volume or in any space, and imagine the contre-bends and other distortions.

Currently, at the beginning of our 21st century, physicists still  into account the mass gravitational attraction, despite the negative results of all searches for a possible vector. Some scientists have come to regard it as a fundamental constant with a value based on that of some places on the Earth when it is essentially variable.

Two centuries later, Einstein took up the idea, which leads him to invent what he called the curvature of space by the mass and energy of objects. Which has never been observed.

It is very difficult to imagine such a "curvature" in a limited volume or in any space, and imagine the against-bends and other distortions.

Currently, in the early 21st century, physicists still take into account the gravitational attraction of the masses, despite the negative results of all searches for a possible vector. Some scientists have come to regard it as a fundamental constant with a value based on that of certain places on Earth as it is essentially variable from one place to another.

    1. No scientist has ever found a justification for an attraction between the galaxies and other space objects.

  1. It has been observed that the strength and the limit of gravity on our planet vary from one place to another in the atmosphere depending on the place, due to the quality of nearby materials.

    1. It has never been possible to find a precise figure for the average force of gravity on our planet. It is not fixed, even if the variations are not very important.

In the space of objects, a particle, or other moving body may encounter an electron, free or already participant of a compound.

There is entanglement or new displacement.

If there is new movement rays are able to:

    1. - Or stay inside, immediately meeting other elements. They take on greater importance, increasing its mass and gravity.

    2. - Either move outwards in the more free space, without immediate contact with other particles and compounds.

3,4 - The gravitic clouds

Rays can head outside, free space, where they meet a variety of compounds, the amount being reduced with distance.

When contacts are taking place with these objects, they react as elsewhere, by sending back or link, modifying compounds and creating new radiation particles and small objects more or less interrelated.

Around the basic compound, it is created a lot of small compounds which form one or more moving clouds.

    1. The compound and its clouds are separated or treated as such by the fact that they form different objects.

  1. This separation is not a jacket but is a natural limit created by the rays tangent to one or the other object.

    1. This explains the limits of objects in space, star, planet, into each other around other galaxies and star clusters.

    2. These limits are not regular bonds because the electrons are always performed at random from their contacts.

It never occurs the "smoothing" of such limits; the particles and radiation, moving between objects bind with others where they are, at random, regardless of the forms of existing "limits".

    1. In these areas, physicists, technicians and researchers in nanoscience and technology are faced with unforeseen difficulties which lead them to think that the atom, and other compounds, are of very different shapes and actions than there of compounds in a ball shape, which was assumed in physics for nearly a century.

  1. A similar limit exists outside the gravitic clouds of compounds and objects even the stars and galaxies. This is a clear separation between the clouds and the surrounding area of space.

    1. This does not preclude the presence and possible development of compounds that could be created in large areas between galaxies and large structures.

The outer cloud decreases and disappears with distance. As long as there, it remains attached to the base body, depending on their respective masses and activity of radiation, corresponding to the thermic agitation. It is maintained and continuously renewed by the rays which come from the basic compound and particles of the normal space, coming from varied more or less distant objects.

This cloud can be qualified as gravitic.

The gravitic clouds vary according to the average temperature of the surrounding medium. Thus small compounds have no procession particles forming gravitic clouds. They themselves have no substantial gravity and remain free independent elements.

    1. These elements are difficult to quantify and similar compounds may have different gravitic clouds according to their environment. Which further increases the complexity of the components of materials.

All other compounds or objects from a certain level by the number of electrons within them, to the largest bodies in space, galaxies and their clusters are surrounded by atmospheres that are their gravitic clouds and are always linked to the main body with their changing limits which depend on the density of elements in the surrounding medium.

    1. These atmospheres are formed of particles of various compounds, elements from key objects and varying with developments and actions in the main objects near or distant.

    2. They are of great importance in the shape of planetary orbits around their star, and in the form of galaxies, what we study quickly below and in chapter I.

According to the objects and circumstances, mainly the level of thermic agitation, the gravitic clouds, even of small objects can take great importance and clouds, neighbours in space, can intermingle and confuse one into another, resulting in more or less strong bonds between objects which form the cloud.

These are the gravitic links.

They concern all bodies, compounds and objects such as, for example, the accretion of elements within the nebulae to form stars and other objects, galaxies and mergers at our level in the field of our planet, small electron compounds, atoms and the formation of very numerous and massive molecules or conglomerates of different materials.

In some cases, the gravitic link may facilitate entanglement of the electrons of the compounds of gravitic clouds.

This is the principle of catalysis: two compounds, which naturally is difficult to approach, can bind "graviticaly" at the same time to another; thus they are close enough and electrons can be entangled. Nothing changes for the "catalyst" which remains linked to the new compound formed graviticaly of previous two. This phenomenon, which we, living beings on Earth, voluntarily use, could be of very common application in the natural changes of all compounds of matters of space objects.

3,5 - Magnism

We have just seen that the gravity and constituents radiation create a virtual envelope around all objects and materials, at different levels.

They can touch, thus forming more voluminous body or be separated from the other by a more or less large space.

Between materials and different objects, then establish zones which can be disrupted by radiation from objects. Observations are often difficult both to know the origin of radiation than the reasons and results of actions.

Historically scholars have regarded them as electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic phenomena. In the 19th century Maxwell theorized them with mathematical equations, without explanation.

    1. Électronisme theory states that there is never attraction of an electron or any other element with another.

    2. Magnetism does not exist.

      1. Magnetic rocks and the magnetization we find on Earth are not yet explained.

      2. A recent study by laser specialists australian researchers, Dr. Cyril and Vladlen Shvedov Hnatovsky led us to think that the phenomena they discovered and described, could guide our study of magnetism. They explain that radiation in the atmosphere near objects, could carry small particles along, while considered attracted.

      3. Their theory can be supplemented by recent observations and particularly by the fact that the attraction or repulsion of objects still involve only light elements, for short distances in the atmosphere.

With the latest scientific observations, we discover that these phenomena are not restricted to physical objects we perceive directly. Inside the objects, materials are created by many different bodies, with their gravities clouds more or less entangled, and other compounds that fit into the spaces between these clouds.

Thus, there are many areas, more or less visible, between materials and objects with surface and interfaces manifestations within all objects, quite similar to those we easily observe outside.

We call magnisme all manifestations of matter in these boundary areas between all compounds and objects. Many are not sensitive directly by us and enhance the randomness of all the operations of electrons in materials and objects.

These are mainly the following events:

    1. - Adhesions, surface tension and capillary action.

    2. - Static electricity and other electrical and electronic phenomena studied with semiconductors and superconductivity.

Current research in nanoscience and technology make us discover some features that are of great importance in achieving artificial phenomena necessary for our activities of living beings on Earth.

    1. It is remarkable that superconductivity at low temperature, manifests itself especially with many different materials including atoms which probably contain more free areas sensitive to magnisme.

The ‘magnic’ area of Earth, other planets and stars, corresponds to the limits of the atmosphere, with special areas such as:

- The limit of winds of the Earth in those of our star, which creates, as it is observed, a protection belt against some cosmic radiation.

- The areas between the atmosphere and outer materials of our globe, especially maritime areas and mountainous masses, with consequences for weather observations and use of compasses for navigation.

- The creation of clouds, tornadoes and cyclones, wet and dry.

  1. -The possible influence of winds particles and groupings of objects in galaxies and other structures.

So be explained how stars and their planets and other space objects are organized into galaxies and other clusters, by the actions of gravity as explained in our theory.

And we could attribute to magnisme maintenance and evolution of these structures.

3,5 bis - Other phenomena

We have seen that when electrons bind and form compounds, there is a reduced volume relative to that of the separated electrons.

This reduction of the volume of space electron could create a vacuum in the space. By their normal operation, electrons prevent it, by unusual movements, creating in the Ether of space, disturbances moving out at "speed of light" - what we explain in chapter IV -. They are sensitive to us as waves, qualified currently electromagnetic.

In some areas, the formation of compounds or their magnification, creates more possibilities of contact between elements with the result:

    1. Either many more connections between the electrons,

    2. Or further displacement of compounds which are radiation whose number is increased.

      1. This is a local increase in thermic agitation, a phenomenon that is growing and increases by itself, leading to another, that of all the events realization frequency.

    3. Inside links may vary with the quality of contacts. The vibrations of electron compounds can be amplified or reduced otherwise.

    4. Thus thermic agitation we perceive as heat can vary greatly from a compound, material or object to another, without being bound by volume appearances or other benchmarks.

      1. The fact is noted in the end 2014, in a study of phase changes in the material, which shows that the changes are moving within the compounds or crystals, instead created from the outside.

      2. (

  1. If it is sending back electrons which occur, the body apparently moves like a beam whose quality is that of the body itself.

The compound itself "realizes" its movement: the expansion of the body against the one with which it is in contact, causes its movement which continues until meeting another element.

    1. Thus the rays are differentiated by their own qualities and those of the environment, where they meet various objects more or less numerous.

    1. Free electrons move at the speed induced by the movement of their expansion, we know instant.

      1. The other body, firstly compounds and all most important objects, form rays of very different qualities, depending on the action of their vibrations within the compound. Some movements can be neutralized; thus reduce the power of the external actions, while actions are increased on each other inside the compound.

      2. These actions are very varied. All values exist​between the called gamma (they would be formed of a free proton), X, beta or other and larger compounds which run like rays. Technicians on Earth know how to use them according to their needs.

    1. In Chapter I, we note that the material of the comet Tchouri is lighter and less dense than that of our planet. As if the condensation of the material, as will be explained here, was arrested, probably because of a too low temperature of the surrounding environment. While the material of the Earth, and all other objects, would have continued to condense for a number of billions of years.

    2. This difference between the materials of Tchouri and earth also confirms slow and permanent changes inside of objects, with increased gravity and the same quality of contents. For large objects, this can last very long. On Earth and for our normal use of summaries and other chemical phenomena, events are slower but exist permanently at our levels and duration of observations.

3,6 - The Matter

3,6, a - Nanosciences and biology

Nanosciences are at the limit of the observations between disparate electrons compounds - which we know little - and those involved in the creation of atoms, which are the basis of the matter.

Technicians, engineers and researchers, know how to handle the materials they need, particularly in the electrical, electronics and biology. It is their observations during their research that give us many indications about the qualities and functioning of the materials at level of atoms and molecules.

For the first time in nearly a century in the history of physics, the ideas of physicists are beginning to change:

    1. "Collaboration" between Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) and researchers of the subject, declares that the actual structure of the material is much more complicated than when (atoms) were treated as small spheres. April 2014 information.

    2. Scientists use equipment in continuous improvement, especially microscopes (and nanoscopes) they adapt to their needs. Current observations provide very important information for the knowledge of the creation of matter and objects.

In biology, the researchers and technicians are familiar with the proteins that are the main components of living matter. They describe them as composed of atoms and molecules of varied forms, mainly flexible and multiple tape nested or folded over themselves, able to permanently change by replacing small parts, modifying the qualities and actions in cells.

    1. These structures could also exist in the mineral.

3,6, b - Electrons

The operation of the electrons shows that all bonds, one after the other, form objects whose thermic agitation increases gradually as new connections to a certain level that results in their destruction.

Free electrons are round in shape, due to their operation way.

But from the first links in the space or material at the temperature of our planet, without particular pressure, the compounds have very different forms and may often look like ribbons packets, or strings more or less linked to each other comparable to certain proteins of living beings.

    1. The protons produced in stars and their nuclei mergers do not form cylindrical body.

3,6, c - Atoms

All phenomena, explained in the opening paragraphs of this chapter are available for all compounds, of which the best known among the small objects, is the atom.

For two thousand years, it is considered as the main constituent of matter throughout the Universe.

It has been described in different ways by many scientists, particularly in 1913 by Niels Bohr. After him others in quantum mechanics have studied and proposed overly complicated operations.

    1. Very few researchers, physicists, chemists, were interested in its structures. Its spherical shape has never been questioned, and actual practical bonds between its components have not been studied.

With Électronisme, the atom is a normal compound of electrons, with the feature, for us living beings, of sentient us almost directly, because of its size and capacity of our current observational tools.

    1. It has another feature of being formed around a core created in a special structure of the material.

  1. It would consist - according to the generally accepted model - of a proton and neutron core, surrounded by clouds gravitic formed out of many electron compounds.

To realize our ideas, we propose a model, knowing that very many other are possible.

The protons are created in stars and other objects in space with very high thermic agitation.

They could be almost ball-shaped, consisting of a specific number of electrons, which, according to their mass, should be close to 1836.

    1. Neutrons, like them, may not be created in the stars, but in the nebula, at low temperature, at the beginning of the formation of matter. They break up into several small compounds, when separated from their atomic nucleus.

More protons are "fused" to form the core.

This fusion corresponds to entanglement bonds, more or fewer electrons constituting the protons with electrons.

    1. Protons fusion could be achieved in different ways depending on the circumstances, the number of protons and bound in special conditions that would give certain characteristics to the cores created and used to remake the materials.

    2. It is currently considered by scientists that the core constitutes the largest part of the mass of the atom, and the "valence electrons" realize the connections between the cores for binding of atoms and molecules.

  1. The gravitic clouds of core components are relatively large in terms of number of electrons that constitute them.

They thus perform a large volume of space around the cores, with strings or ribbons electron, more or less overlinked, depending on the variable thermic agitation, without change, to a certain extent, the quality of formation of atoms or those already formed.

They keep more or less long bonds direct connections with core components.

Links with additional free electrons or already participants in the compounds may be very important, preparing the phase change of the material created.

    1. The phase shift threshold may vary depending on the characteristics of the materials.

Atoms are shaped excessively varied according to their creation, giving them very different qualities.

Their structures require relatively precise links with other of the same qualities and explain various other molecules for various materials.

These atom and other compounds forms begin to be recognized by searchers, particularly in nanoscience.

The Magnisme explained in the previous paragraph could be of great importance in the creation of atoms, molecules and additional compounds witch are formed in the voids of the main compounds.

    1. Are still named atom, the cloudless cores in materials with high thermic agitation, such as plasmas, on Earth and in the stars and other objects in space.

3,6, d - Molecules and matter

In objects of space as long as the thermic agitation is low enough not to turn it in plasma, atoms and other compounds of electrons of a certain mass, are surrounded by gravitic clouds.

These gravitic clouds of nearby atoms can combine, forming various molecules of similar or different atoms, more or less stable in very specific conditions, which are still poorly understood.

    1. In these combinations of atoms, further intricacies and "gravitic mergers" create relatively complicated structures. They resemble the mineral or organic polymers currently observed: tangled strands electrons compounds, more or less ‘overentangled’ linking atoms and molecules.

    2. We give the name of neomolecules, term used in technical texts for groups of various molecules. They are studied particularly in nanoscience.

    3. Macromolecules are polymers of similar chemical compounds and molecules (single) of similar atoms groups.

The connections of atoms together, alike or not, are always made by their nuclei. This results in more or less complete interpenetration of their gravitic clouds.

    1. These links are not necessarily entanglements that would mean irreversibility with increased thermic agitation.

    2. The molecules created by interpenetration of gravitic clouds do not necessarily create increased thermic agitation, since there is no entanglement of electrons. They come apart easily.

  1. The gravitic clouds of molecules are less bulky than those of accumulated components. During the creation of all molecules with binding of nuclei, it emerges free electron compounds that may have specific uses.

We still have a lot to understand, as a more or less rapid formation of amorphous material or crystals that are realized in the forms that are steering with difficulty.

We know to create and use heat and cold, but we can not control the shape to give the material or liquid or solid phases for particular uses. Technicians can create materials they need, but we do not yet know how to use individual molecules of special atoms to give the material the desired shape.

This is the case for speeding up or slow transformations of material, such as in catalysis, explosions to slow somewhat or heat generation.

3.6,e - Death of Stars, materials and Living Beings

The creation of matter from the bonds of electrons explains the death of stars, by excessive thermic agitation.

In the universe, all free objects and all those involved in the creation of other bodies in all matters have their "life" limited in the same way by increasing the thermic agitation which would be blocked by their environment.

This would explain the forms and dimensions of all objects and the death of living beings.

© - avril, May 2016

Accueil / Home

Résumé en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?

Philippe Dardel 

Accueil / Home

Résumé, en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?

Philippe Dardel 

Accueil / Home

Résumé, en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?

Philippe Dardel 
Accueil / Home  -  Philippe Dardel, Boningal, 82200 Moissac, France
Courriel : phdardel@orange.frAccueil_Home.htmlmailto:phdardel@orange.frshapeimage_4_link_0shapeimage_4_link_1

Electrons, Compounds, Gravity, Atoms, Chemical synthesis

Électronisme - Essay