Earth, Air, Water, NUC, Electricity

Chapter V

On Our Planet

5,1 - Earth,
5,1,a - The Matters, 5,1,b - The Gravitic clouds,
5,1,c - The Air, 5,1,d,  - The Water,
5,2 - The Sun’ Rays,
5,3 - Nuclear Energy,
 - The theory, 5-3,b - Current Energy, 5,3,c - Nuclear Electric Plant,
5,4 - Electricity
5,4,a - Théory, 5.4,b - Its existence, 5.4,c - Our use,
5.4,d - Electric Current, 5,4,e - Electrical Systems, 5,4,f - Actions

5,1 - On the Earth

5,1,a - The Matters

The matter of our Earth was constituted during the creating of stellar systems, there is 4.8 billion years ago. All atoms and molecules of different masses of matter existed at the time of the differentiation between our star and small planets.

    1. Since in the Earth, there has never creating new atoms and the matter has not changed.

The astronomers observations show that, although the same rules are applied everywhere, trillions of objects that exist and are created continuously in space, are all made of different materials, with atoms and probably other various compounds which we can not imagine the existence and shape…

Some features are determined by the environments in which they are formed where they exist and evolve and renew themselves.

Our understanding of materials depends primarily on the way we see them. It is we, Human Beings, who classify and differentiate them and consider exotic all very infrequent elements in our constituted matter. We are allowed to think that those of our galaxy may have common features, whereas in other star clusters, near or far, elements that we cannot even imagine would form. From there sometimes a ray could reach us that we call a cosmic ray…

On Earth and in every objects at medium temperature, matter is said constituted, and represent less than one percent of what is called matter in the observable Universe. This material consisting exists only for a relatively very short period of the life of objects in space

Within our value system, we can distinguish different situations.

    1. 1 - The "cold" environments at a temperature below approximately 200 kelvins. This situation is mainly found in space, nebulae and other objects which are barely visible or not visible to us, containing widely scattered compounds or diluted materials. As we cannot see them, we know nothing about their values, amounts or simply if they exist.

    2. 2 - Moderate areas for us, living beings, where we live and we developed some thermic agitation - which we call heat - between 200 and 2000 degrees Kelvin about.

    3. 3 - Circles with a higher thermic agitation, continually increasing in objects, like our Sun, The gravity also increases.

      1. At certain levels of heat and gravity, important compounds are created. The materials are plasmas that have no tangible reality as we know it on our planet.

  1. The material consists of atoms and molecules, as we know it on Earth and other planets exist only in a very small period of the life of objects in space, between the relative cold of the vacuum of space and glowing warmth of the stars.

But we think it is very important to us!

5,1,b - Atmospheres

The atmosphere of stars and planets matches the objects gravitic clouds. In galaxies and other groupings of objects in space, they are similar winds with much less dense particles.

They consist of small compounds. Their various features are dependent on movement and permanent changes in the materials, creating the gravity of these objects. All material radiations on the limits of these objects form their atmospheres.

Physicists know that the gravity in and around Earth varies with the qualities of the matters near the site of the measure.

The shape of the gravitic field of our star depends on the particles winds around other large objects in our galaxy. Many other star systems exist there.

"Sunspots" we can observe on the Sun and all its granulations might correspond to particular gravitic areas, different from that of the complete one of the star. All events in these spots locally modify stellar winds with rapid repercussions on the winds and climate of the planets, in the whole solar system, and elsewhere in the galaxy.

5,1,c - The Air

The air in our atmosphere corresponds to "winds of particles", as we have just explained.

This is a particular no constituted matter, existing in varying amounts in all the gravitic environment of Earth, up to the Earth's magnetosphere, including, and this does not come as a surprise to us, in all the interstices of the solid matter of our giant ball, to the interior of all mines and natural deep galleries, including the chimneys of the deep seabed. Air always has the same composition, although oxygen or nitrogen act in the material which seems to contain them.

Like other gravitic clouds around all objects in space, «Earth winds» are a mixture of atoms, reduced to their nucleus, and other very varied small compounds moving side by side and which, in the atmosphere or "on Earth" cannot naturally bind to others.

Different elements form inside the cloud more or less stable materials.

The influence of "sunspots" is transmitted to us through our atmosphere and this of the Sun.

    1. Pollution in some areas of the atmosphere, by dust or soot or ozone, for example, is not moved by currents of the lower atmosphere, but by “planetary” winds, which concern the totality of the gravitic field of Earth, and probably by solar wind.

5,1,d - The Water

In our planet, and all the objects in our solar system, another important quasi-matter is to be considered differently from the said constituted material. This is water.

It exists mainly in liquid form.

It is present everywhere in amounts more or less important, especially in vapour form in the "solid" material and in the air. Water vapour is not a gas, but a bursting into fine droplets of liquid water, which can not turn into gas without dissociation of its components.

These droplets can be extremely thin. Do they correspond to molecules?

It dissolves products without incorporate them and can dissociate them into their components without modifying them.

  1. Water fills oceans, which account for 71% of the earth's surface, but only 0.23% of its volume, because we know only the water which is present in the outer crust.

    1. In early 2014, scientists have discovered that there is an "ocean" in the mantle between 400 and 600 kilometres deep. See below.

It is not present in nebulae. But it exists, a few billion years later, in the matter constituting planets. It therefore appears at some stage between the accretion of compounds in the nebulae and the planetary formation. Its origin is not yet well understood.

Électronisme Physics allows us to attempt an explanation.

Its creation

At the beginning of this chapter we have seen that the nuclei of atoms are formed in stars with high thermic agitation, before they turn into other objects, in which the formation of nuclei can continue. After passing through these objects and a number of billion years, these nuclei are found scattered in a nebula at low temperature.

In these nebulae, when the material begins to move and creates new compounds, nuclei reshape their gravitic clouds to complete the atoms. Among them, some heavy, composed with many protons, have a significant gravity. They create major gravitic clouds and the created matter is considered easily fissile and radioactive.

    1. At the same time are formed a certain number of neutrons, probably in connection with the atoms as they never exist free in matters.

  1. In one of these nebulae a material is formed which evolved into various objects alike our Sun and its system of different objects, planets, comets and smaller others. The temperature of the mass of the objects increases, causing the destruction of certain bonds in the materials and especially the molecules of heavy atoms we saw readily fissile, like their gravitic clouds and nuclei. Protons are released in the material and in the atmosphere around. Atoms are formed with broken nuclei and new gravitic clouds.

Some of these free protons act as hydrogen nuclei, and bind to oxygen atoms in the air. They form water vapour, made of water molecules which seem independent of each other, despite the molecular bonds that create solid bulk water, liquid or vapour, passing from one stage to the next depending on the temperature.

In millions of years, much of fissile material mass in our planet is thus transformed into water.

    1. This concerns mainly massive of the outer part of the Earth's crust.

    2. Complement 4 August 2016

    3. In the material inside the planet, water creating from the neutrons of easily fissile material is realized only if oxygen is available.

    4. If oxygen is lacking partially or totally, the dihydrogen molecules remain free forming light gas fields that are evacuated to the surface trough the solid matters as and when it is produced.

    5. Natural emissions are occurring in different areas of the surface of the Earth. They may be related to the visible presence of uranium ores massives, and in other areas probably due to large clumps of matter even deep in crust or deeper into the material of which the temperature rises continuously.

    6. In the search for clean energy - useable without creating greenhouse gases - the Hydrogen is a fuel whose production sought on Earth is difficult.

    7. Industrial exploitation of natural emissions of H2, already begun, could be a very important contribution to the overall energy problem on Earth.

  1. This continues during the lifetime of the planet, depending on the outdoor temperature, especially near the uranium massive. Easily fissile material (radioactive) inside the globe can be transformed into water depending on their environment, mainly increasing temperature in the same time than more contacts with the oxygen of the air.

    1. This is probably how would created immense groundwater reservoirs of very pure water discovered in recent years, mainly in Canada and in some areas of Africa where there are great massifs of uranium ores.

    2. Hydro thermic high temperature vents in seabed could correspond to a formation of water from solid to easily fissile material around volcanic chain structures marine shallows.

      1. There are, to a certain depth in our planet, a significant "ocean" whose creation could be related to the temperature of the planet.

  2. The current increase in global temperature of the Earth would create water vapour in all areas where there are masses of fissile material and an increase in the overall volume of "atmospheric rivers"

    1. Meteorologists call so water vapour bands moving between one and ten kilometres in altitude in the troposphere. They are very moving and can be extended to several thousand kilometres.

    2. They could be fuelled by ongoing transformations of fissile material.

    3. Sometimes they provoke heavy rains with exceptional floods, anywhere in the world.

  3. Quasi-matter

The water forms a quasi-matter that exists in the other quasi-matter of the planet, the air of the atmosphere.

We can consider that water is dissolved in the air, with very large variations in concentrations due to the difference of gravity. This allows the formation of "mass" of this quasi-matter in the air.

It exists mainly in the liquid state, with gravitic bonds between molecules. It thus forms a uniform material, with a density higher than that of air. It then fills the lower parts of the structure of the planet and settles under its own weight.

Steam exists permanently with or without the presence of liquid water. The transition from one state to the other is easily achieved. It is always linked to temperature and relative problems of the state of the surrounding air.

It "evaporates" easily by the winds of the Earth.

It has a great importance in all weather phenomena.

  1. Its peculiarities

  2. 1.The water can be heated quickly, only in a container which limits the dispersion of its components. In a thermic agitation increasing, air elements are eliminated in the atmosphere, which is realized only in a fairly complicated process, because of the permanent presence of air.

      1. Boiled water cooled without movement, did not taste the same as running water, because it contains some air.

    1. This also explains the variations of the boiling point, depending on the pressure in the surrounding environment.

  3. 2.At much higher temperature, the bonds in the water molecules are destroyed and gases, hydrogen and oxygen are released into the air where they already exist.

    1. That explains:

    2. Mtembo effect. It is a fact observed (and used by cooks): hot water freezes faster than cold water, when placed in contact with the cold. In the slightly hotter water than the other, the elements of water are mixed with more air, allowing a modification of the thermic agitation, the surface faster than the elements of water, packed upon each other.

    3. Supercooling. It is due to the same phenomenon and would be destroyed when motion changes the layout of water molecules adjacent to each other.

  4. 3.For the cold the situation is similar. Because of the large difference in density between water and air, all changes in the environmental temperature, air - water, have immediate consequences, even if these variations are not very large.

    1. Cold reaches the material when the thermic agitation is decreasing that is to say the displacement of the elements of a compound to another. At a certain value, the water mass changes status, it becomes solid. This change applies only to water. The greater part of the air, around the water molecules, is very free even if it supports the steam.

    2. At low temperature in the atmosphere, cold moves from the open, outer, to water, by first reaching the surface molecules that are lighter than in depth.

    3. This is why ice forms first in surface and as frozen molecules contain a certain amount of air, they are lighter than those in depth, and ice remains on the surface.

    4. That is also the reason why they occupy a larger volume. This is found in closed containers, piping, in particular.

  5. 4.Creating of rain, snow and hail clouds in the atmosphere. It depends on the temperature of the water more or less important in the movement of air vapour. Frequent supercooling of the steam cloud is destroyed by different air movement

    1. External elements, primers or condensation nuclei, are not useful for triggering these events in the clouds.

      1. Air pollution above cities worldwide turns mist into "smog", not rain.

      2. In many countries for several decades, product testing dispersed into clouds to prevent hail and cause rains never give conclusive results.

  6. 5.Formation or gathering of electrical charges in clouds with creating systems and circuits that are manifested by movements or discharges whose place and time to be determined.

    1. They are accompanied by lightning and thunder. To study since that could help us understand "our" electricity.

    2. Also include the wisps and other events that seem to occur more frequently in humid atmospheres.

5,2 - The Sun Radiations

On Earth, we get radiations coming from the Sun.

The main two types are heat and light. These are different phenomena. They are related for us only because they affect us together when "the Sun is up", but the heat comes to us only an hour, approximately, after the light.

Heat is created by electron links that bind together to form progressively larger compounds, up to protons and their fusion into atomic nuclei.

The heat that concerns us comes from the outer part of the star, and spreads throughout the entire solar system. It arrives to us on Earth in about an hour, by convection at a speed of 7 to 900 kilometres per second, through the elements of solar winds, then through the Earth's atmosphere.

It is our distance from our star that determines the heat we receive and which allowed the evolution of life as we know it.

    1. Life, we do not know the original was created and evolved based on this temperature. Changes, even small, like those we currently only fear will hinder many, if not most, of the existence of all living beings.

Light is equally a consequence of very numerous entanglements of electrons in a certain period in the life of the star (main sequence?) forming disturbances of space at frequencies that living beings can use.

"Light" waves reach us…. at light speed, in about eight minutes from the outer regions of the star, where entanglements of electrons take place at corresponding frequencies.

  1. The electrons of the space waves allow us to create the lighting environment. The images are formed by our nervous system that interprets the information provided by the "light rays" remaining after refraction and absorption on objects.

5,3 - Nuclear Energy

5,3,a - Theory

The current operation of the said nuclear energy is based on observations made in the middle of the 20th century. They appeared to show that the fission of the nuclei of radioactive material produced heat. The operation would give elements with lighter nuclei, more or less radioactive and heat, whose amount was estimated using formulas like Einstein E = mc2, rather approximate.

All phenomena are being explained by the early 20th century physics, mixing the "chemistry" of the Mendeleiw elements board, and equations of protons and neutrons handled with different forces of Standard Model of particles and quantum mecanics.

The observations seem misinterpreted because it is difficult to determine if the heat is due to:

    1. - The break of atoms of radioactive materials, as interpreted by the current physicists; or

    2. - The creating immediately afterwards - almost simultaneously - new compounds with elements from this break, as explained in Chapter III.

In ordinary chemistry on Earth, changes and destruction of compounds are difficult, if not impossible, and are always endothermic.

    1. All-bonds-intricacies are indestructible.

    2. A relative increase in heat can help break gravitic links.

    3. All chemical syntheses or compositions, including electron bonds are exothermic.

During the creation of our planet, many masses of fissile material were created, as we explain here-above in paragraph 1.11,c (the electron cycle), in Chapter I.

    1. Thereafter, some are degraded by natural reactions in accordance with the increase of thermic agitation.

    2. Everywhere on our planet, decays are realized, without stopping, which we are sensitive by radon gas.

    3. Others created the water, as explained in section 5,1,d, here above.

Some, on the surface of our planet, are exploited for our nuclear power.

In the mines, the uranium material that contains easily fissile elements in very small quantities, is concentrated for uranium and transported as "Yellow Cake" to the plants of use.

5,3,b - Current Nuclear Energy

In the "nuclear", operation starts with the preparation, from the yellow paste, bars of "fuel", adapted to the needs and equipment.

For the operation of the plant, these bars are lowered into tanks filled with water (pressurized or not) where they come into contact with neutrons and small free compounds existing in water and the air from the tank.

Links are realized immediately between electrons of compounds from neutrons, and the free compounds in the tank.

They lead to a first increase in the thermic agitation which triggers the entire operation.

    1. We saw in Chapter III, that the formation of compounds by binding the same or different atoms releases elements of gravitic clouds which are coming together: the gravitic clouds of the compounds are always smaller than the sum of those components.

This thermic agitation is a supply of charges for heavy elements that were "broken" by 2 (or 3) important pieces and many small.

    1. The pieces seem predetermined. They certainly correspond to pre-protons created in stars at end of their life

The compounds released, and those of the atoms gravitic clouds existing in the tank, immediately bind with free or not elements of the fuel, creating new compounds that are radioactive by-products (undesirable) and causing a second and strong increase in thermic agitation.

It is the production of heat, which is sought.

It is transported into no "nuclear" areas of the plant and used for mechanical movements which cause electric generators functioning. See section 5.4, here below, concerning electricity.

According to these explanations, the heat is therefore not produced by the fission of heavy atoms, but by the links, just after, to create or modify compounds.

    1. Does this could be called cold fusion or LENR (English: Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)?

5,3,c - Nuclear Electric Plant (and thermic)

Currently, all thermic (combustion) and nuclear power plants to generate electricity operate on the same principle:

  1. 1.Performing one or more chemical syntheses of elements to create heat, and all-together useable or undesirable by-products.

  2. 2.The heat is converted into mechanical movements,

  3. 3.To turn a generator,

  4. 4.And pick up the electrical charges in the air to put in electric systems.

We must try to remove the phases 2 and 3, by creating in phase 1 molecules of products that are not (too) undesirable AND free compounds that are created directly in electrical systems.

5.4 - Electricity

5.4,a - Theory

In the universe, and therefore on Earth, all events, creations or transformations of materials and objects are achieved by electron bonds, free or already participating in compounds of contents, following contacts, as explained in chapters II and III of this essay.

Electricity is this possibility of action for all free elements of the universe in the space of objects and subjects and atmospheres of these objects.

She always exists for all electrons and objects in the universe, without features or special provisions in these elements. Not any force or energy is not associated or necessary to the electrons that bind.

It is noticeable and active only when electrons are in contact. In this case electrons, it is always present.

5.4,b - Its existence

It is present everywhere at all levels of existence of compounds and materials, from the first links of free space electrons to the material changes in the stars and other objects in galaxies.

It has no particular force and action is always adapted to the volumes and other qualities of compounds in contact.

Electricity is the same way, suitable for a transistor, a handheld gadget or high voltage transmission systems "energy."

It leads always and at all levels of importance of the matter, the realization of all phenomena explained in Chapter III for the creation of contents:

- Disturbances of electrons and ether creating waves of space,

- Increasing the thermic agitation, with modification of the movements of electrons and free compounds,

  1. -Gravity in any compound, with gravitic clouds and atmospher around all objcts..

5.4,c - Our use

Part of visible actions and events on Earth is considered electrical phenomenon existing in many forms that some we do not know how use it.

This is, among others, storm clouds, static electricity or diffuse in specific areas of electronic components.

These are well-defined systems, surrounded by an insulating region, in which an electric current creates actions and balance components by their permanent displacement, as elsewhere, that is explained in Chapter II.

It's exactly the same for our "artificial" uses on Earth.

It is always composed of two elements:

- The electrical current made up of elements, electrons and free compounds, which can be combined with others, but no or very little between them.

- The limited system wherein there are, with very little, or not at all, connecting between its elements and those of the electric current.

5.4,d - Electric Current

This is the "tool" acting. It is composed of atoms and other free compounds, with characteristics associated with their use which consists of two actions:

    1. Their bonds. They do not easily bind them. They do this with specific elements, many atoms, according to location and materials.

    2. The balancing of the disorder, that is to say their permanent displacement, to each other in their system. This is the general phenomenon, prompted by the vibrations of electrons in their compounds and materials and space, visible and sensitive for us by thermal agitation and waves from space.

      1. It is realized in electrical systems, and all matter and the surrounding space.

      2. When the amount of the compounds in a circuit is changed by a contribution or a use, the balancing is achieved instantaneously and appears to us as the movement of electric current.

      3. The electric current is never transport entity, which would be "electricity", from one point to another of a system, but a balancing this entity formed of separate elements, in the whole system in a way that seems instantaneous, but more or less marked, sometimes, by a significant hysteresis.

    1. Compounds connections in a system can change the electric current there, with immediate balancing. It can manifest as a local increase of the thermic agitation, sensitive to us as heat.

The hydrogen atom made of a single proton is the most numerous atoms atmospheres objects. It could be a major component of electric current.

Possible models

- The storm clouds and luminous lightning discharges.

    1. The electrical current is created from the free elements of the existing atmosphere in well defined clouds, determined by different qualities of air from the atmosphere. They are linked to more or less significant accumulations of molecules "steam" of water.

    2. Energy discharges manifested by lightning and thunder lightning, when connection between sectors or clouds at different voltage. Momentary electrical systems may contain significant quantities of electricity which are destroyed during their discharge.

    3. Other electrical systems will likely form around tornadoes and cyclones.

  1. - It is in the atmosphere, cloudy or not, that is "harvested" the electric current through the coil of the current generators.

    1. For two centuries we have only one way to "create" the electricity we need for our equipment by raking the electrical elements in the air by the friction of the winding of the generator.

      1. The winding conductors wires are part of the electrical system. Some of their qualities determine those of electric current.

      2. They rotate at a certain speed in the air where small various compounds are located. bonds are held between the electrons of these little free compounds with:

      3. Or components of the wire of the winding,

      4. Either small compounds from the air, driven by the displacement of the coil. The generator works only if a use is "connected", which shows that the electrical system is stable, so balanced continuously.

5,4,,e - Electrical Systems

These are the areas in which an electric current is created, moves and works depending on the apparatus used.

They are suitable for electric current and the apparatus used.

They are varied depending on the quality of the materials which form the electrical current and they contain.

So they exist, from the smallest structures like single molecule to an electronic component, to larger volumes, load and size of their zone of action.

These systems are an important part of current research in nanoscience and technology because this area is in a creating area of​the material of objects of the Universe, intermediate between the molecules and the largest free elements, in the space or systems. Currently, the new "nanoscopes" provide an almost direct observation.

5,4,f - Actions

They are those of all the components of the materials, as explained throughout this study.

This means that virtually electricity is everywhere, often in specific systems adapted to utilized elements.

Some particular cases.

- Photovoltaic

The "accumulations" of free electrons disturbances in space, can be recovered by special materials, probably mede of protons from the atmosphere to form compounds able to participate in electric current in a system created from special photovoltaic cells matter.

- Superconductivity

This is a difficult problem because the electrical phenomenon still exists when electrons are in contact, for example those of electricity and those of the systems it-self and insulation.

Much research is done with graphene, or the like, and proton atom or hydroguene.

- Electronic components, diodes ...

Transistors, diodes and many other electronics devices are explained by basic phenomena of electricity in power systems consist of the component itself, and the balance of entropy in all relevant areas

© - 25,4,2016

Accueil / Home

Résumé en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?

Philippe Dardel 

Accueil / Home

Résumé, en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?

Philippe Dardel 

Accueil / Home

Résumé, en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?

Philippe Dardel 

Électronisme - Essay