Chapter VI

The Life on Earth

6,1 - Origin of Life, 6,2 - Features of the Life,
6,3 - Organs and organisms,
6,4 - Nervous Systems,

6,4,a - Differents systems, 6,4,b - The Action Potential,
6,4,c - Nervous influx, 6,4,d - The Senses, 6,4,e - Other actions,
6,4,f - The Phantom Signs,
6,5 - Social Life

May 2016

6,1 - The Origin of Life

The latest hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth bring into play specific elements present in the space of our galaxy. Their molecules are close to the molecules of carbon compounds, and close to organic, mineral or living, dead or alive, matter on Earth.

Life on our planet has appeared in locations distant from each other, with no connection between them. According to some current observations, microbial life was already flourishing and quite widespread, 3.5 billions years ago, or a billion years after the formation of the Sun and its planets..

The first living cells, usually grouped in colonies, are all alike. They probably originate from the same compound that could be created, grow and multiply in order to be created in solar system while forming, that is to say, the Sun and its planets. See chapter I.

What follows is one possible explanation, among many others, for the development of life on Earth.

In the nebula in which the solar system was forming, a particular compound or an unusual new molecule might have existed—probably created within a previous object in our galaxy, star or otherwise, or constituted inside this nebula—forming a small unusual body…

We find it very difficult to imagine and we call it Life.

By an abnormality, it would have multiplied itself in elements like itself, and these new elements would have dispersed in materials that were being formed. Many examples of this Life-object might then be found in many bodies, including the Sun and its planets. In our Earth, they were able to maintain and then develop all the way up to us, given particular environmental conditions, such as the external areas of our planet. It might still exist in the deeper layers of our Earth, probably in different forms.

Astronomers will one day probably find signs of life on all the planets in our solar system, as they have recently found on Mars and lately on Titan, a moon of Saturn. With the discovery, which was to be expected, of planets around all stars in our galaxy—and in others—it is very possible that Life particles existed and still exist in some of them.

It is not the presence of conditions that seem now to us favourable to life as we know it on Earth, which determined its installation on our planet. A particular Life cell came across to our planet randomly, as it may have done, and probably has done, elsewhere in the Universe and it developed according to the conditions that it encountered.

"Life" could therefore exist anywhere on our planet or in other stellar systems. It would be visible or identifiable on the surface of space objects or within certain materials. But only groups of cells under specific conditions could develop, adapting to the environment. The environment in question is not necessarily essentially oxygen and water, but could be quite different media, as shown by some extremophile organisms that are installed on Earth in unusual environments compared to life as we know it.

Even if there were somewhere a nearly life similar to ours, considering which cell Life we come, with an evolution of 4.8 billion years,- and closer to us that of modern man, appeared 200,000 years ago - it is not reasonable to think that we could meet one day living beings in a stage of development allowing mutual understanding.

How were human beings, 2 billion years ago?

Could we understand a man coming from some 20 thousand years ago, or living at 20 or 20 thousand years light from us?

6,2 - The features of the Life

It is difficult to determine what differentiates inert matter from that of the living beings. Among the peculiarities of it, identified by philosophers, we retain self-reproduction, a faculty for all living individuals to create others like them.

But it is not certain that this characteristic is specific to life. Some current observations in nano sciences show some reflex natural reproductions or reflex "reparations" in certain mineral neo-molecules.

Another feature of living matter is that all living organs and organisms are surrounded by an envelope, participating in their functioning, involved in the development of certain phenomena.

All compounds of mineral organic matter, as well as all the other elements, the cristallogenic elements in particular, have structures that can suggest a skeleton or shell or a more or less solid envelope. These structures give them characteristics that are the subject of special studies in the field of nano science.

    1. However, in our current observations, none of these structures, even those structures that contain other structures, participate in their modifications.

The substance of living beings is created and evolves exactly like all other materials in the Universe, with the same phenomena and the same rules, even if the envelopes of organs and organisms create unusual events and objects, that are still not satisfactorily explained.

6,3 - Organs and Organisms

The outer envelopes of living beings, skin, peel, membrane, shell, or other, serve to protect them and limit their environment. Their permeability to internal or external, physical or seemingly intangible elements, is highly variable, according to classes or species.

    1. We can consider as an organism, a group of unicellular individuals, enough tight together to avoid any way or contact with outside except those necessary to their existence.

      1. That was probably the beginning of multicellular organisms.

Inside the organisms, envelopes or membranes surround all the organs, different each from others by their matters or functions. They are often inside each other, and often surwrapped.

The contacts of the living beings with their outside are made by two ways:

    1. -Physical actions, easy to observe, for ingesting food and air and for evacuating rubbishes and destroyed proteins while internal functioning of organs.

    2. -By the senses, which allows the coming in the organisms of all the events from their medium, with sensations for sounds or noise, odours, vision, touch…

    3. -We will see below, § 6.4,d, that a selective permeability could exist in outer envelopes, enabling valuable or accessories connections of these organisms, of the same genera or animal or plant kingdoms without clear separation. Thus plants and animals can cooperate to their defense or development.

The envelopes and membranes have to be consider as a part of the cytoskeleton of the cells of all the living beings.

6,4 - Nervous Systems

6,4,a - Differents systems

All operations of life are similar in all living organisms, some of which are much more complicated than others. But the level of complexity is difficult to define, as well as differentiation between the 3 kingdoms, animal, vegetal and mineral.

A plant body that has memory, reflexes and centralized actions, without brain, is it less complex than an animal that seems to think or a colony of bacteria that seems to choose its food?

We study here-below the nervous systems of living creatures called superiors. Other organisms are provided with simpler devices with relatively comparable results.

All events in the life of all individuals considered alive and their bodies are dependent on a nervous system - even without visible physical element such as neurons - in which all actions stem from each other without any choice or program.

    1. The system can be reduced to a more or less important specialized network of proteins which permanent changes may be due to disturbances of the internal space. This is particularly true for higher plants for which the bark injury must be repaired quickly.

    2. Physiologists who are interested in plants experience the phenomena of information transfer between plants more or less distant, but do not yet explain them. Important connections seem to exist in the soil between the plant and animal, fungi, insects organisms, for example.

A nervous system usually consists of very variable size cells, neurons with various extensions, such as dendrites, synapses and many other sites such as memories and ensembles, nodes and brain.

In our study we completely separate the action potential and nerve impulses, whereas:

    1. -The action potential is the material part of the nervous system, ensuring its vital maintenance,

    2. -The nerve impulses is the operation of the system itself, particularly what is considered as the transmission of signals for actions at any levels.

6,4,b - The action potential

It is the material of neurons with proteins that allow the entire operation of nerve impulses.

This is the "vegetative" system of the neurons and glial cells and the whole system, with, for example, the uptake of molecules made by nutrients, based on changes or creations of proteins and the need to evacuate those destroyed by the normal operation in the entire system.

The modifications of value of different ions in the cytoplasm of nerve cells, are regulated by variations in the selective permeability of plasma membranes, induced by the nutrients and the disturbances within the internal space through the nervous influx.

    1. Thus the quality of the nutrients can be sensitive in organisms despite all the changes they undergo before reaching the cells.

6,4,c - Nervous influx

It's a seemingly immaterial part, using proteins of neurons and disturbance of electrons of the inner space of the entire nervous system.

Overall, its operation is already well known but no explanation is given as to the practical realization of protein modification following the transmission of informations by senses, or other neurons in the internal nervous system.

The research is intense and new ideas appear in recent years in connection with the "brain waves" used since the 1930s for electrical measurements in conjunction with health problems or varied research.

We offer below a mode of action, copied over the air space, which helps to explain and justify the brain waves, waves existing in the whole body of living beings with an apparent nervous system. They could also exist in other living organisms.

Sensations or "sense" are the contacts, some appearing intangible, of living organisms with their environment and surroundings. We explain in detail here below.

It is through them that information entering organisms.

These information are collected in the external environment by the special ends of nervous systems. They are dendrites composed of numerous small proteins, modified continuously by electrons, free or already connected to others, and particularly those of disturbances of the space, as the "light wave", in concerning the optic nerve. See Chapter IV.

    1. For example, with respect to the vision, the electrons of the disturbances of the space, - the sunlight after being partially absorbed, and returned by reflection from the object, so what remains - come into contact with proteins dendrites of the retina. Some are modified or newly created and at the same time form new disturbances and waves in the interior of the nervous system and organs.

      1. There could be a long series of modifications of proteins and thus a series of disturbances with various uninterrupted activities, despite the independence of all events.

  1. The new space disturbances are created only if the modifications of proteins correspond to a certain volume of electrons.

    1. The wave disturbances in the internal space of living organisms have specific frequencies, different of those of the Ether of space generally.

    2. They relate only to the internal space of the bodies until their outer envelope and would therefore always be specific in each living being bounded by its outer envelope.

They move more or less into the bodies, according to:

    1. -The importance or the "strength" of the signal, which should cover the whole body or only a few cells or organs more or less distant from the point of creation of the signal.

    2. -The quality of the envelope of organs, or sites such as the brain which, for the vision, recognize images or create new ones.

  1. All operations are carried out instantly but still one after the other, depending on the importance of modifications of proteins involved in specific sites or specific systems, with important synapses interventions that could bring the features of the genome.

Proteins of the cells are permanently changed. These are accumulations of amino acids with a very short shelf life and are reconstituted immediately with elements of destroyed peptides, modified by disturbances of the internal space according to their importance.

Only significant events, - at different levels - from dendrites, or other places of synapses or modifications of compounds may affect and modify proteins in more or less organ or cells.

Disturbances, and information, always move at the speed of light, with more or less involvement of the hysteresis, because of the very large diversity of proteins.

Recent ideas and discoveries could be a first step towards this theory of information transfer in the nervous disturbances by the interior organs and bodies system.

    1. In early 2014, a team considered as a "cluster of excellence at the University of Freiburg and of the French National Centre for Scientific Research in Gif-sur-Yvette" explores the movement of a "resonance" that could be responsible for the transfer of information into nerve impulses.

    2. This resonance corresponds to such disturbances recovered, partially or otherwise, by changes in protein ready to receive them.

All these provisions could suggest that all systems are alike. But as we have seen from the first chapter of this essay, all events are always randomly performed in systems already randomly done.

The presence of some elements may be accidental and in this case lead to specific events, materials or sometimes apparently psychological.

6,4,d - The Senses

From the beginning of their presence on Earth, and during many billions years of evolution, all living beings have created for themselves tools to guarantee their material life and to use the phenomena of their environment for more or less important or necessary functions. We do not yet know all of them.

All the "connections" between living beings and their environment are realised through these envelopes by "senses."

Touch seems necessary for all living organisms, while the sense of taste is unique to some. Sight, smell, hearing are phenomena carried by space waves, and atmosphere waves, and are more or less developed depending on the individuals. Other relevant waves for some other organisms may exist, radio waves, for example, whose frequency of disturbance are similar to the waves called olfactory and luminous.

All the senses are "exploited" in the same way inside bodies, by nervous systems, centralised or not. But according to the organisms’ needs, the waves of space can be used for different phenomena that can vary from one type of organism to another.

For example, so called light waves are used by "superior" (more complex) animals for sight thanks to their eyes, but plants and other organisms not possessing any "ocular" tools which could still be using those same waves for some phenomena whose consequences are similar.

    1. Thus ivy see the wall, a little further away, on which it is going to climb with roots that it prepares the correct side and sunflower turns towards the Sun?

Actual studies by the Teams of Pr Steven Lockley, Brigham and Women's Hospital de Boston and of the Université de Montréal, shaw that… « Light doesn't just allow us to see, it tells the brain whether it's night or day which in turn ensures that our physiology, metabolism and behaviour are synchronized with environmental time”. The researchers also show that light stimulates brain activity during a cognitive task even in blind people. It would be interesting to know the nerve endings that transmit information to the brain specialized sites that detect this activity.

“For diurnal species like ours, light stimulates day-like brain activity, improving alertness and mood, and enhancing performance on many cognitive tasks,” explained senior co-author Julie Carrier. “This theory may explain why the brain's performance is improved when light is present during tasks.”

    1. It would be interesting to know the nerve endings that transmit information to the specialized brain sites detecting this activity.

Studies in Canada have shown that plants are sensitive to music.

Numerous other searches and observations relate varied phenomena with environmental influences on the behaviour of plants and other organisms without differentiated nervous system. The live of these living beings is organized with many events and devices that we think reserved for living "superior" beings, touch, light, smells, sounds, memories and apparent choices.

Colonies of unicellular protozoal might perhaps have the sense of touch, and contacts would allow the functioning in them, as explained above, of a primitive nervous system.

For smells and sounds, there are probably different levels of formation, movement and detection, depending one on the Ether of space and the other on the surrounding environment, with air as an important component.

As far as smell is concerned, an important part could be conducted as for vision, with waves of disturbances of space generated by creations or modifications of compounds.

    1. Scientists have just discovered (in early 2011) that the smell of odour molecules is modified by variations in their shape. These modifications can cause disturbances of space—by electrons entanglement or other connections of compounds in the "aromatic" molecules—with a diffusion and a perception that can take place at a more or less close or far range, according to the quality of molecules and receptors. We should be able to position them in the overall spectrum of perturbations of space. They could be located in the submillimeter band waves, not well known and close to the infrared and light waves, which are perceptible by living beings.

    2. The latest observations, in particular the importance of nostrils in the orientation of pigeons, or dissemination of pheromones by sparrows, allow us to explain very numerous phenomena.

    3. For their migration numerous living beings seem to be attracted and guided by odours emanating from "places" of destination, at more or less precise times in their lives. The hibernation of mammals and other terrestrial animals may be decided by the "smell of the seasons," both for the beginning and for the waking up at the end, while individuals are still "asleep".

    4. It would be interesting and useful to know the importance of odours in the lives of butterflies and other insects, especially those who live within a society, or partially in the ground and their hosts they might parasite or not.

    5. Marine animals, such as turtles, eels, salmon, and perhaps the great cetaceans might be guided by smell, despite the presence of the marine environment which only has a small influence on disturbances and waves of space.

      1. But there could also exist a different and complementary process concerning, among other phenomena, the "odour trails" with the sense of smell of some living organisms or short range odours, carried in the air of the atmosphere.

The sense of hearing is not very different.

Sound waves could be of two kinds. Disturbance of the atmosphere moving at the "speed of sound" like waves of the vibrations of the air, and a more general mechanism involving the disruption of space at particular frequencies.

    1. Is the guiding system of bats sound driven or is it similar to radio interference or radar waves?

The current scientific evidence may let us think «the five senses» could derive, or have evolved from the touch which could be the first sensation or use of their environment by colonies of primitive unicellular organisms.

6.4,e - Other actions

These perturbations of the internal space of the organs and organisms could explain the replication of genetic material, thinking that everything is done very quickly when the necessary conditions, - that we do not know - are met, even for chromosomes and all the DNA.

In vitro, studies are very important for all physiologists, biologists and other researchers concerned with the phenomena of life. They work on samples, larger or smaller parts of organisms, using materials and techniques that they are able to invent and adapt.

But it is likely that these samples will lack the inductor signals brought by disturbances of general space coupled with the internal space of organs or organisms that transmit information from one site to one or more others, controlling the entire system.

    1. This is probably one of the reasons that require animal experimentation in laboratories.

In the same vein, could it be that some unusual envelopes of organs within organisms -—or lack of them—may cause defects and malfunctions appearing as diseases?

The inheritance of acquired characteristics can be explained in the same way, repeated peculiarities are incorporated more or less quickly in the proteins that make up the genome.

A similar phenomenon is this of learnings. The repetition of actions by limbs or by other organs creates some reflex memory-sites that may exist for a long time, and be reactivated after long periods of pause or suspension. This concerns both the learning of physical gestures, sports, the use of instruments, and the intellectual activities, and we can add all those activities of ordinary life that are properly working and effective only if the information for the operational functioning is transmitted almost instantly from one neurone to the others with the reactions of memories sites, reflexes and effectors. For example, it is the feet touching the ground, who communicate to the knees how to walk and the information received by the dendrites of the optic nerve are interpreted by the memories sites to create images for us.

6.4,f - Phantom Signs

Our amazing discovery of the «Phamtom Signs», not yet explained, could confirm the phenomena detailed above.

By carefully looking at a place free of solid color, paper, smooth wall, objects, after a few seconds, "I" see lines of text or drawings of very fine shapes, irregular and moving, a little dark or bright. Everything is sometimes visible or barely perceptible, but always there.

The letters are in constant motion as if the words changed, which prevents reading the texts.

Watched through a magnifying glass, letters and drawings are not changed, but the lens does not enlarge them, as it does for objects around, as if the write lines and signs were insensitive to the magnifying glass, or were between the lens and the eye.

I see them everywhere and even in the stain of my AMD. It would therefore not the eyes that see these images!

Everyone can see them. But nobody notices them, probably because they know, or we think we know, they could be linked to a eye functioning.

In recent years, research has shown that the sense of touch is the only to act within the bodies of living beings. Attributes such as the eyes, nose or tongue are accessories to this.

The Phamtom Signs, lines of text or drawings appear as a visualization of internal disturbances and letters and words might correspond to thoughts that vary constantly, until an unconscious decision that modifies a effector or memory site. The recordings appear not to be made immediately, as if to wait for reflection. Which would confirm that thoughts, like all intellectual acts, are only purely material ...

These remarks seem unrealistic as believing that we see these disturbances in the Phamtom Signs ...

This would confirm the transfer of all information - even those being created - by disturbances of the ether of the internal space of the organs and organisms.

The Phamtom Signs might correspond to particles created in the inner space and around bodies, at their outer limit to determine this limit may vary with the quality of materials.

Similarly that are created all bodies and objects - along with internal gravity - as explained in Chapter III.

Variations of small proteins in organs and organisms would form around them a small gravitic cloud, as the atmosphere around the objects.

The Phamtom Signs do not vary according to activities immediately. That could be the beginning of an explanation of how a quasi nervous system could act in plants and other living things.

6,5 - Life in Society

Touch is a very important phenomenon in the social life of all persons, human and others belonging to the animal kingdom including insects, especially those that live in colonies.

    1. The imposition of hands is an act that exists within all human groups, and probably corresponds to observations dating back from the beginning of the creation of human beings.

    2. It should not be regarded as charlatans, researchers vital energy, followers of acupuncture or relaxation therapy and other dowsers and healer; there is no fluid, "animal magnetism" or positive or negative energy, but probably specific skills in the permeability of the envelopes of organisms. In 2012, studies of mind controlled games could be an application of these phenomena with the use of headphones creating a communication between the inside and outside of organisms.

Contact between the mucous membranes of certain individuals could be the basis for important social organisations.

    1. Kissing and sexual activity are of great value, apart from the satisfaction of pleasure and reproduction. Frequent and particular contacts, through the mucous membranes, help social relations between partners to evolve.

    2. Some current research shows the value of physical contact between a mother and her child.

Physically, spirit does not exist.

It is a way of using, consciously or not, by living beings, differently according to individuals, very numerous sites of the nervous system. This physiological entity brings closer together some specific phenomena participating in the activities of living beings, aware or not of the presence of this spirit.

Its creation is based on the biological evolution of the formation of individuals since the presence of the first cell of life. Then, in billions of years of evolution, repeated phenomena have created reflexes and memories that would be the beginnings of what we now call the mind.

Some complex living beings, called superior, have created special organs, such as the brain, the nerve ganglia, which gather together the reactions to external and internal events.

Multiple proteins that form the tissues of these sites and all sensitive elements have evolved without any directed intervention, not even directed by the spirit itself, as it goes along while it creates itself. It is also possible that at some point, biological evolution has been guided by decisions that seem conscious, taken by the spirit that created.

The intelligence of some living beings is created exactly as their spirit. It is a specialisation, innate or acquired, involving mainly memory and speed of actions, whether they are reflex or not, physical or intellectual.

The "form" of the spirit is linked to permanent modifications in synaptic proteins and of other specialised sites, which could be proved by various phenomena including the following three:

    1. -Studies showing the unreliability of memory,

    2. -The fact that some newborns of complex organisms already possess at birth a complete nervous system with specific sites that react to events happening from birth,

    3. -The difficulty, if not the current impossibility to create with a computer an intelligence that would be comparable to the intelligence of living beings. Memories necessary to deductions, are important to digital and information technology. These are less reliable, but much more finely tuned, for living beings.

      1. Artificial Intelligence will never give doubt or smile that move a step.

We must therefore consider that all the phenomena that lead to the formation of the spirit are realised without any intervention of this spirit, even for us human beings. It seems difficult to imagine and understand how proteins neurons, real hardware, can turn into spirit who feels responsible for living beings of the whole operation.

The decisions taken by this spirit are equally unconscious and that free will does not exist, if we stay at the level of physical science. But these phenomena have great importance in the lives of individuals and societies. Unconscious decisions can create apparently unforeseeable or unavoidable events.

Fortunately, cognitive relations, social contacts and philosophy have created rules of life in organised societies, which give the illusion to individuals that they are able to intervene in the events of their lives. In the normal frame of reference, this illusion is sufficient, and unconsciously people are happy with it.

Intuition might be a faculty, - more or less developed in contacts between human individuals -, which would short-circuit the sequence of decisions, whether they are expressed or not, the last part being often an hesitation between two or more ideas and how to express them.

This phenomenon would remove an apparently conscious part of reflection and the decision would be taken without this period of consideration that does not in itself bring anything "genetically" more valuable.

This does not alter the fact that free will does not exist, which is hidden to us by our friend, the chance.

There is no conscience or other entity controlling a specific program that supposedly controls evolution or some changes. All organs are created and evolve, without consideration of their usefulness to the organism.

Evolution exists, but its results are not always useful for the development of the organism, according to our human appreciation. It moves in all directions, and we can only know the organs or the organisms that have survived their modifications.

    1. This might confirm a current theory which would partially explain why the majority of the dinosaurs would have disappeared in a few million years, 70 or 80 million years ago, with an evolution which was probably inadequate to their way of living or a climatic change, where they existed.

Observed after evolution, all organs and organisms seem to have been created and to have evolved for a specific purpose. There is no such purpose.

There is no mechanism that would correspond to the control or monitoring of an operation. This could take place only in the presence of an entity that would be conscious of events and would have the means to guide these actions. We have seen that the Universe does not have it.

But in our immediate environment, at our human scale on our planet, living beings, human in particular, were able to use to their benefit naturally occurring genetic modifications, called mutations. These were sometimes beneficial depending on the circumstances of the moment. They subsequently multiplied them, and tried to create more modifications to try to improve their living conditions and, in particular, to fight against seemingly incurable diseases and difficulties of life. They have managed to modify, usually very modestly, organisms that are called GMOs, some of which are poorly understood and variously exploited by political movements or subjective beliefs.

From their appearance, living beings have evolved, in order to enable them to adapt to their environment, with the creation of other individuals and lifestyles. They have advanced together, according to their senses, their environment and contacts with each other, creating and developing cognitive relations that became social.

For some, amongst which Human Beings, the evolution of exchanges has led to language as a tool to make life easier, and enabling communications, whether essential or accessory ones.

When these living beings began to analyse their relationships, philosophy appeared in order to understand that spirit supposedly transforming the realities observed turning them into more complex concepts such as the soul and existence.

It is generally admitted that only human beings have a spirit.

But what do we know of other non-human persons, to whom we recognise a certain level of intelligence as we understand it, and of those who do not seem to need a spirit to exist?

Similar reactions of some individuals to external phenomena depend on acquired reflexes, sometimes imposed by the leaders of these people, for the good of their community or under this pretext. This may involve physical and mental behaviour such as military obedience, and exclusive beliefs, usually religious ones.

© - May, 20th, 2016

Origine of Life, Organs and Organisms, Nervous systems, Evolution

Accueil / Home

Philippe Dardel 
Notice / C.V

Résumé en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Études rapides/Quick Studies

Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?


Accueil / Home

Philippe Dardel 
Notice / C.V

Résumé, en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?


Accueil / Home

Philippe Dardel 
Notice / C.V

Résumé, en français  
Summary in English

1 L’Univers - in English
2 Les électrons  - in English
3 Les composés  - in English
4 Les ondes  - in English
5 Sur Terre  - in English  
6 La vie   in English
7 Autres théories- in English

Énergie … Electricity


Signes Fantômes-Phantom Signs
Les limites de la physique
Le temps ?  -  pdf in english
Planck & FDC  in English
Presque boson de Higgs
Collisionneur ILC
ILC in English
Et après ?


Électronisme - Essay